# How I learnt miniKanren

I’ve spent quite a bit of time in the last semester working with miniKanren in an attempt to implement at least a sizeable subset of it metacircularly. The result of these efforts is metaKanren, which is microKanren extended to support user-defined relations. This post goes over what I feel are the resources that helped me gain enough of an understanding to achieve this.

1. The Reasoned Schemer, 2nd Edition : this covers not only all the basics of writing programs in miniKanren, but also sheds light on good practises and idioms for relational programming. This is the starting point for anyone wanting to learn relational programming in miniKanren. Also, I specifically say 2nd edition, because I initially read the 1st edition but later found out that much had changed since the 1st edition and had to go through parts of 2nd edition again. Please don’t make the same mistake I did, just read the 2nd edition to begin with!
2. miniKanren, live and untagged: quine generation via relational interpreters : this demonstrates how to implement an interpreter for a subset of Scheme in miniKanren. Do not be deceived by how small the size of the final interpreter is! There are extremely subtle and highly non-trivial choices made, to truly appreciate which one must try to rewrite the interpreter without referring to the paper.
3. A unified approach to solving seven programming problems : this is yet another paper demonstrating advanced techniques of relational programming using miniKanren. In particular, the 7th challenge, whose solution uses a Scheme interpreter inside a Scheme interpreter in miniKanren (i.e. a tower of interpreters interpreting one another) is quite taxing to understand, let alone solve.
4. $\mu$Kanren : A Minimal Functional Core for Relational Programming : the previous resources show how to use miniKanren, but this one shows how to implement a subset of miniKanren (while managing to capture the core essence of how it works). Once again, do not be deceived by how small the interpreter is - just “39” lines of Scheme. I say 39 in quotes, because the authors of this paper do not consider an important component (reification to be specific) to be part of $\mu$Kanren, rather they say it is part of the user interface. However, without this component the entire $\mu$Kanren system is quite unsuable, so I’m not sure if I agree with such a philosophy. Furthermore, just those 39 lines of Scheme code came out to be around ~300 lines of dense miniKanren code when I implemented metaKanren, so it is quite important to understand why/what each of those 39 lines are the way they are/doing to gain a meaningful understanding of $\mu$Kanren, and miniKanren itself at large. I had to write down all of $\mu$Kanren onto an A4 size paper and contemplate on it for hours together to understand it enough to able to implement it metacircularly.

One more paper I had to understand for implementing metaKanren, but isn’t necessarily helpful to learn miniKanren is Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages. This paper demonstrates how to implement a higher-order language using a first-order langauge (e.g. implementing Scheme in C). The technique used to achieve this is named, quite aptly, “defunctionalization”. This was important to understand because Scheme uses higher-order functions in a variety of ways to implement $\mu$Kanren. However, since miniKanren lacks procedures altogether, defunctionalization must be applied for each particular kind of use of procedures.

All in all, metaKanren taught me a ton about implementing interpreters, relational programming and doing research in programming languages. Of course, it was super fun!

# Update 20/07/2021

metaKanren was accepted at the miniKanren 2021 workshop! Here’s a preprint.